Cappadocia, is a region that covers the province, especially Nevşehir, Kırşehir, Niğde, Aksaray and Kayseri. The Cappadocia region was established 60 million years ago by the erosion of the soft lava and ash layers of wind and rain on Mount Erciyes (Argeus), Mount Hasan and Mount Güllü for millions of years.
The settlement in the Cappadocia goes back to the Paleolithic period. The lands where the Hittites lived once became one of the most important centers of Christianity. Thanks to the soft texture of the caves, carved houses and churches that have historically significant traces have made the area livable for Christians who escaped from the Roman Empire.
While natural phenomena such as erosion and volcanic eruptions created fairy chimneys, in time people found shelters in this environment. Added frescoes and ornaments to this nature at an incredible date. In this way, it has become one of the important points of Silk Road in trade.
After the collapse of the Hittite Empire, Assyrian and Phrygian civilizations survived by the influence of the Hittite Kings. It dates back to the 12th century BC. It continued until the Persian invasion in the 6th century BC. The Roman Empire dates back to the 3rd century. B.C. In the 1st century, the region was seized by Rome.
The arrival of Christians to Cappadocia goes back nearly to the 3rd century. Despite the pressure, Cappadocia was an ideal place for the spread of Christianity.
In the 4th century, icons began to be banned. For this reason, people believing in icon began to settle in the region. In this way, Cappadocia monasteries developed. This movement continues between 726 and 843 BC. During this period, Arab raids began. Then, in the 11th and 12th centuries, it passed under the protection of the Selcuks. Then there was a peaceful period with the Ottoman Empire. The last Christians in the Cappadocia left region due to the exchange between 1924 and 1926.
The formation of the region has developed due to volcanism, tectonism or erosion. Three mountains named Erciyes, Hasandağı and Göllüdağ were active volcanoes 60 million years ago. Hasandağı and Erciyes Mountains were active volcanoes until 2000 years ago. They form the basis of this geography with the lava and soft tuff layer deposited on the plateau. Over time, the tuff layer was covered with lava layer. Due to the erosion caused by rain and winds over time, capped cones formed slowly. The current name is referred to as fairy chimney.